"Iran and Cuba, in cooperation with each other, can bring
America to its knees. The U.S. regime is very weak, and we are witnessing
this weakness from close up."
Fidel Castro, during his tour of Iran,
Syria and Libya.
Agence France Press, May 10, 2001
CASTRO AND TERRORISM
by Eugene Pons
with a foreword
by Jaime Suchlicki
Institute for Cuban &
Occasional Paper Series
OPS Advisory Board
Luis Aguilar León,
Institute for Cuban &
José Manuel Hernández,
Irving Louis Horowitz,
Association for the Study
of the Cuban Economy
Lesbia Orta Varona,
University of Miami
Institute for Cuban &
Since 1948 when, as a young student,
Fidel Castro participated in the violence that rocked Colombian society and
distributed anti-U.S. propaganda, he has been guided by two objectives: a
commitment to violence and a virulent anti-Americanism. His struggle since
and his forty-two years rule in Cuba have been characterized primarily by
In the 1960's Castro and his brother,
Raul, believed that the political and economic conditions that produced
their revolution existed in Latin America and that anti-American revolutions
would occur throughout the continent. Cuban agents and diplomats established
contact with revolutionary, terrorist and guerrilla groups in the area and
began distributing propaganda, weapons and aid. Many Latin Americans were
brought to Cuba for training and then returned to their countries.
At the Tricontinental Conference held
in Havana in 1966 and attended by revolutionary leaders from throughout the
world, Castro insisted that bullets not ballots was the way to achieve power
and provided the institutional means to promote his anti-American, violent
line. He insisted that "conditions exist for an armed revolutionary
struggle" and criticized those who opposed armed struggle, including some
Communist leaders in Latin America, as "traitorous, rightists, and
Castro's attempts in the 1960's to
bring revolutionary, anti-American regimes to power failed. His support for
guerrillas and terrorist groups in Guatemala, Venezuela, and Bolivia only
produced violence and suffering to those countries and their people, which
repudiated violence as a means to achieve power. Violence resulted in
military regimes coming to power in several Latin American countries.
For the next two decades, the Cuban
leadership, supported by the Soviet Union, modified its tactics. In addition
to agents from the America Department, the subversive arm of Cuba's
Communist Party, Castro used his Armed Forces to help friendly groups
achieve power in Latin America and Africa. In Nicaragua Cuban military
personnel, weapons and intelligence supported and helped bring to power the
Sandinistas. In El Salvador, a bloody civil war in part fomented and aided
by Cuba, ended in a stalemate and a negotiated peace.
In Africa, Castro achieved his most
significant victories. The Soviet-Cuban backed Movement for the Liberation
of Angola (MPLA) faction was installed in power in Angola and other Cuban
supported regimes came to power throughout the continent. The Cuban military
also trained and supplied the South-West African Peoples Organization
(SWAPO) and the African National Congress (ANC), forces fighting the South
Castro also became involved with
African-Americans in the U.S. and with the Macheteros, a Puerto Rican
terrorist group. Cuba focused particular attention on the black struggle in
the U.S., providing aid and training to the Black Panthers and the Black
Liberation Army, as well as a safehaven on the island for black leaders.
Castro continuously promoted the independence of Puerto Rico and supported
the Macheteros who committed terrorist acts and bank robberies in the United
States. Several still live in Cuba.
Cuban military and intelligence
personnel aided Middle Eastern groups and regimes in their struggle against
Israel, and Cuban troops fought on the side of Arab States, particularly
Syria, during the Yom Kippur war. Castro sent military instructors and
advisors into Palestinian bases; cooperated with Libya in the founding of
World Mathaba, a terrorist movement; and established close military
cooperation and exchanges with Iraq, Libya, Southern Yemen, the Polisario
Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara, the PLO and others in the Middle
Despite the collapse of the Soviet
Union, Castro continues to undermine U.S. policies in the Middle East in
several ways: a) by portraying U.S. actions and diplomacy in the region as
those of an aggressor, seeking to impose hegemony by force, particularly in
Iraq and the perpetration of unjustified economic sanctions on Iraq and
Iran; b) by portraying the U.S. as the main obstacle to a peaceful
settlement of the Israel/Arab conflict; and c) by discrediting U.S. policies
and seeking support for Cuba at the U.N. These anti-American views and
policies are conveyed as a systematic message through a network of Cuban
embassies and agents, as well as at the U.N. and other non-governmental
political, religious and cultural organizations.
While not abandoning his close
relationships in the Middle East, Castro has recently concentrated his
support on several groups: the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
(FARC), where Castro, and his new ally Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, see
significant possibilities for success; ETA, the Basque terrorist/separatist
organization from Spain, which has found refuge and support in Cuba, and the
Irish Republican Army (IRA), which established its Latin American
headquarters in Havana.
American policymakers should pay
careful attention to the intricate web of relationships which emerges so
clearly from this chronology. It carefully details Castro's involvement with
and support for terrorist regimes and organizations during the past four
decades. Cuba's geographical location, Castro's continuous connections with
these groups and states and the harboring of terrorists in Havana creates a
dynamic that requires vigilance and alertness.
It should be emphasized that in
addition to violence and terrorism, Castro and his regime, have been for
more than four decades, the most vocal and active proponents of
anti-Americanism. The often-repeated view in many countries that the United
States is an evil power, guilty for much of the problems and sufferings of
the developing world, is owed in great part to the propaganda efforts of
Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies
Castro and Terrorism
By Eugene Pons*
Raúl Castro and Che Guevara visited
Cairo and established contacts with African liberation movements stationed
in and supported by Cairo. Both Cuban leaders visited Gaza and expressed
support for the Palestinian cause.
Members of the Dominican Republic
"Agrupación Política Catorce de Junio" received military training in Cuba.
Major emphasis was placed on
instructing several hundred pro-Castro Latin Americans in violence and
guerrilla warfare. Dominicans, Guatemalans, Venezuelans and Chileans were
trained in special camps in Cuba and infiltrated back to their countries.
Castro established relations with
the Algerian FLN; official and public support was extended, weapons were
shipped to the FLN through Morocco (1960-1961). Cuba provided shelter,
medical and educational services and cooperation in the fields of
counter-intelligence and intelligence.
African leaders from Congo, Ghana,
Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, South Africa, Spanish Guinea, Tanganyika and
Zanzibar arrived in Cuba for military training.
Che Guevara engaged in guerrilla
operations in Congo-Kinshasa (former Zaire) in 1965.
A revolutionary trained in Cuba,
John Okello, overthrew the pro-Western government in Zanzibar in 1964 and
proclaimed the "People's Republic of Zanzibar" which was promptly
recognized by Cuba and the Soviet Union.
Conference of Latin American
Communist Parties held in Havana agreed to "help actively the guerrilla
forces in Venezuela, Guatemala, Paraguay, Colombia, Honduras and Haiti".
Group of Venezuelans, members of the
Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR), trained in Cuba and
landed in the Venezuela coast in the State of Miranda.
Cuban trained Guatemalans Cesar
Montes and Luis Turcios Lima led a violent terrorist/guerrilla campaign
against the government in Guatemala. Montes organized the Ejercito
Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP) in Guatemala. In the 1980's he joined the
FMLN in El Salvador and participated actively in the bloody civil war in
Cuba welcomed the founding of the
PLO. First contacts with Palestinian FATAH in 1965 in Algiers and
The Tricontinental Conference was
held in Havana in January, 1966 to adopt a common political strategy
against colonialism, neocolonialism, and imperialism. Cuba provided the
organizational structure to support terrorist, anti-American groups in the
Middle East and Latin America. The Organization for the Solidarity with
the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) was created.
Fidel Castro created The National
Liberation Directorate (DLN) in Cuba to support revolutionary groups
throughout the world. DLN was responsible for planning and coordinating
Cuba's terrorist training camps in the island, covert movement of
personnel and military supplies from Cuba and a propaganda apparatus.
A Cuban controlled Latin American
Solidarity Organization (LASO), with its permanent seat in Havana was
created to "coordinate and foment the fight against North American
In Venezuela, Castro made a
relentless and determined effort to create another Cuba by supporting the
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) and promoting violence and
terrorism against the democratically elected regime of Rómulo Betancourt.
Castro sent weapons via Cairo, to
the NLF in Southern Yemen. Cuban agents were sent on fact-finding missions
to North and South Yemen (1967- 1968).
Cuba published a small book by
French Marxist journalist Regis Debray Revolution in the Revolution,
promoting guerrilla warfare in Latin America. The book was translated into
various languages and distributed widely.
Cuban supported guerrillas led by
Che Guevara moved into Bolivia in an attempt to create "many Vietnams " in
Cuba and Syria developed a close
alliance and supported FATAH and the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).
Cuba continued its military and
political support for FATAH after the Syrians broke with the latter, and
Cuban military, political and intelligence support was granted to other
Castro sent military instructors and
advisors into Palestinian bases in Jordan to train Palestinian Fedayeen
(1968); first high-level delegation from FATAH-PLO visited Cuba (1970).
Several missions sent to Southern Yemen
to support NLF/FATAH Ismail both politically and militarily.
Castro began supporting and training
of M19, a Colombian guerrilla group that captured the Dominican Embassy
and the Justice building in Bogota and assassinated several prominent
In 1970 a "Mini Manual for
Revolutionaries" was published in the official LASO publication
Tricontinental, written by Brazilian urban terrorist leader Carlos
Marighella. The mini manual gives precise instruction in terror tactics,
kidnappings, etc. The short book was translated into numerous languages
and distributed worldwide by Cuba.
Cuba commenced political and military
cooperation with Somalia's Siad Barre (1969).
Economic and political cooperation
began with Libya in 1974.
In 1974 the National Liberation
Directorate (DLN) was reorganized into the America Department (DA) under
the Communist Party of Cuba Central Committee. The DA centralized control
over Cuban activities for supporting national liberation movements. The DA
was responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba's secret guerrilla and
terrorist training camps, networks for the covert movement of personnel
and material from Cuba, and a propaganda apparatus. DA agents also
operated in Europe and other regions. Trusted Castro ally Manuel Piñeiro,
" Barbaroja" was placed in charge.
Cuba provided training and support to
the Tupamaros, a terrorist group operating in Uruguay.
Cuba's America Department (DA) set
up a network for the funneling of weapons and supplies to the Sandinistas
In 1979 second in command in Cuba's
America Department (DA) Armando Ulises Estrada, helped unify Sandinista
factions fighting Somoza.
Closer connections with FATAH-PLO
and other Palestinian organizations were reinforced, including training of
Latin American guerrillas in Lebanon; Cuba's military support included
counter-intelligence and intelligence training.
Arafat visited Cuba in 1974.
Cuba provided military support and
personnel to Syria during the Yom Kippur War (1973-1975).
Black Panther Party members from the
U.S. were trained in Canada by Cuban personnel. Black Panther leaders and
other U.S. blacks also received weapons and explosives training in Havana.
Cuba joined with Algeria and Libya
on a diplomatic/political offensive in support of Frente POLISARIO
(People's Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara and Río del Oro);
later on provided military cooperation, and medical services.
The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) estimated that there were 300 Palestinians training in Cuban camps.
Cuba supported the so-called
"Steadfastness Front" against the U.S. backed Camp David accord.
Illich Rámirez Sánchez, known as
"Carlos, the Jackal", responsible for numerous terrorist acts in Europe,
trained in Cuba. He attended the 1966 Tricontinental Conference in Havana
and later trained in urban guerrilla tactics, automatic weapons,
explosives and sabotage in Cuba.
Abu Iyad, a close aid to Yasser
Arafat, stated in 1978 that hundreds of Palestinian had been sent to Cuban
Additional military and political
support provided to the Palestinian cause; Arafat attended the Sixth
Non-Aligned Conference in Havana (1979).
During Havana visit, Arafat signed
agreement for military cooperation and arms supply.
Significant hard currency loans
(tens of million) were facilitated by Arafat-PLO to the Cuban government
under very soft terms; Cuba granted diplomatic and political support to
Arafat during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon.
The Aden (South Yemen) regime
supported the Ethiopian radical officers commanded by Mengistu Haile
Mariam, sending Yemeni military units in support of the latter against
Somali aggression, and asking the Cubans to do the same. Cuba joined in,
first with a group of officers headed by General Arnaldo Ochoa, a move
that was followed later on by the deployment of large Cuban forces against
the Somali invasion. Also as part of the alliance with the Aden regime,
Cuba granted some small-scale support to the Dhofaris in their armed
struggle against the monarchy in Oman.
The Cuban trained Congolese National
Liberation Front invaded Shala, Zaire.
As part of Cuba's alliance with
Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime in Ethiopia, the Cuban leadership decided
to engage in active political and military support of the Liberation
Movement of Southern Sudan headed by John Garang against the Arab-Muslim
regime in Khartoum.
Cuba developed closer ties with and
sent military advisors to Iraq.
Cuba's America Department (DA)
operated a weapons pipeline to the Farabundo Martí National Front (FMLN) a
terrorist group attempting to gain power in El Salvador.
Cuba cooperated with Libya in the
political founding of the World MATHABA in Tripoli, to provide political
support and coordinate revolutionary violence throughout the world. Cuba
supported Libya's stand on Chad and the FRENTE POLISARIO.
Cuban trained terrorists members of
the Guatemalan EGP kidnapped a businessman in Guatemala. Several were
arrested in Mexico when attempting to collect ransom.
Despite its close links with
Baghdad, Cuba recognized and praised the Iranian Revolution. Once Iraq
attacked Iran, Castro withdrew his military advisors from Baghdad and
adopted a position of official impartiality, though more sympathetic to
Baghdad, due to his past relations.
Argentine born Cuban intelligence
agent Jorge Massetti helped funnel Cuban funds to finance Puerto Rican
terrorists belonging to the Machetero group. The Macheteros highjacked a
Wells Fargo truck in Connecticut in September 1983 and stole $7.2 million.
Cuba's America Department (DA)
provided, thru Jorge Massetti, weapons and several thousand dollars to the
Libyan support to Latin American
revolutionary movements, especially in Central America and the whole of
the World MATHABA project, declined after the U.S.bombing of Tripoli in
Cuban agents in Mexico engaged in
bank robberies to finance several terrorist groups from Latin America
operating out of Mexico.
The Palestinian Intifada increased
Cuba's support for Arafat and the PLO, both diplomatic and military.
Several dozen Mexicans received
training in terrorism and guerrilla warfare in Sierra del Rosario, Pinar
del Rio Province and in Guanabo, in eastern Cuba.
After the negotiations leading to
the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority, Cuban-Palestinian
military cooperation was enhanced, including the areas of
counter-intelligence and intelligence.
In early 1989, Cuban General
Patricio de la Guardia directed a plot in Havana and charged Jorge
Massetti with blowing up the U.S. transmission balloon of TV Martí located
in the Florida Keys.
Cuba condemned Iraq for its invasion
and annexation of Kuwait, supporting the latter's sovereignty; it also
condemned U.S. military operations in the Gulf and abstained at the U.N.
from supporting the bulk of the sanctions imposed on Baghdad. A Cuban
military delegation was sent to Iraq to learn and share what was
considered vital information and experiences from U.S. combat operations
in Kuwait and Iraq.
Cuba provided advanced weapons and
demolition training to the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in
Perú. The Tupac Amaru attacked the U.S. Embassy in 1984; bombed the Texaco
offices in 1985 and attacked the residence of the U.S. Ambassador in 1985
all in Lima, Perú.
ETA, a Spanish terrorist
organization seeking a separate Basque homeland, established the Cuartel
General (General Headquarters) in Havana.
A high-level PLO military delegation
including the head of Intelligence paid a visit to Cuba.
On February 24, 1996, Cuban Air
Force Migs shot down, in international waters, two small unarmed civilian
planes belonging to Brothers to the Rescue, a Miami based group. All
occupants were killed, including three American citizens.
The election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika
(April 1999) as President of Algeria, opened new opportunities for Cuba,
given Bouteflika's close relationship with the Cuban government for more
than three decades.
PLO leaders continue to have close
relations with the Cuban leadership, having access to specialized military
and intelligence training, either in Cuba or Palestinian territory, and in
the sharing of intelligence.
A spokesman for the Basque
government in Spain met in Havana with two high level ETA terrorist taking
refuge in Cuba, José Angel Urtiaga Martinez and Jesús Lucio Abrisqueta
Cuba continued to provide safe haven
to several terrorists fugitives from the U.S. They include: Black
Liberation Army leader Joanne Chesimard aka Assata Shakur, one of New
Jersey's most wanted fugitives for killing a New Jersey State trooper in
1973 and Charlie Hill a member of the Republic of New Afrika Movement
wanted for the hijacking of TWA 727 and the murder of a New Mexico State
A number of Basque ETA terrorists
who gained sanctuary in Cuba some years ago continued to live on the
island, as did several Puerto Ricans members of the Machetero Group.
Castro refused to join the other
Ibero-American heads of state in condemning ETA terrorism at the 2000
Ibero-American Summit in Panamá and slammed Mexico for its support of the
Summit's statement against terrorism.
Castro continues to maintain ties to
several state sponsors of terrorism in Latin America. Colombia's two
largest terrorist organizations, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), both maintain a
permanent presence on the island.
Colombian officials arrested IRA
members Niall Connelly, Martin McCauley and James Monaghan and accused
then of training the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
Connelly had been living in Cuba as the representative of the IRA for
Former Defense Department
counter-terrorism expert John More told UPI that Cubans, militant
Palestinians, Hezbollah and even advisors from the leftist government of
Venezuela are all active in Colombia.
During the trial of several Cuban
spies in Miami, one of the accused Alejandro Alonso revealed on December
30, 2000 that he was instructed from Havana to locate areas in South
Florida "where we can move persons as well as things, including arms and
Speaking at Tehran University in
Iran on May 10, 2001 Fidel Castro vowed that "the imperialist king will
is the Coordinator of Cuba's Information System at the Institute for Cuban
and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami.
BPP - Black Panther Party - Founded in
the United States in 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. It adopted
Marxist-Leninist principles along with urban guerrilla warfare, and a
structure similar to the American Communist party.
DGI - Directório General de
Inteligencia - The Cuban Department in charge of collecting intelligence and
carrying out covert operations outside Cuba.
DA - America Department - Centralized
control over Cuban activities for supporting national liberation movements,
responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba's secret guerrilla and
terrorist camps, and propaganda apparatus.
DLN - National Liberation Directorate
- Organization created in Cuba to support revolutionary groups throughout
the world. Responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba's terrorist
training camps in the island, covert movement of personnel and military
supplies from Cuba, and propaganda apparatus.
EGP - Ejercito Guerrillero de los
Pobres - A political-military Marxist-Leninist organization that followed
Cuba and Vietnam as revolutionary models. This Guatemalan insurgent
organization was trained in Cuba and was very active during the 1970s,
seeking to depose the political and military structure of the country.
ELF - Eritrean Liberation Front - The
most influential Eritrean organization fighting for secession from Ethiopia
in the 1960s, actively supported by the Cuban and Syrian regime since 1965.
Various internal divisions developed later on until the late 1970s, when a
new front was built based on very different domestic and external alliances
and, eventually led the Eritreans to victory. Cuba's support to Mengistu
Haile Mariam's regime in 1978 meant the cessation of previous Cuban backing
to the Eritrean cause.
ELN - National Liberation Army -
Organized by the Castro regime, this Colombian Marxist insurgent group was
founded in 1965. Its main terrorist activities includes kidnappings and
extortion targeting foreign employees of large corporations.
ETA - Basque Separatist Movement -
This organization was founded by militants and leftist students from the
University of Madrid in 1962. They formed guerilla units that commit violent
terrorist acts claiming that they are fighting for freedom of the Basque
Region, in Spain. This group has close relations with the IRA. The two
groups have offices in Havana and their members have found safe haven in
FALN - Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación
Nacional - A Venezuelan guerrilla organization trained by Cuba in violence
FARC - Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia - Established in 1964, the FARC is the oldest and best-equipped
Marxist insurgency in Colombia. It is a well-organized terrorist group that
controls several rural and urban areas. It has received financial and
military aid from Cuba and many of its members were trained in Havana.
FATAH - Palestine National Liberation
Movement - Founded in 1959 by younger generations of Palestinians that had
experienced the defeats of 1948 and 1956. The FATAH are strongly committed
to a radical nationalist platform to fight for Palestine and against Arab
intervention and manipulations of the Palestinian problem. Mostly an
underground organization until the June War in 1967 when it transformed
itself into the most powerful and influential party inside Palestinian and
FLN - Front de Libération National -
The political and military organization that led the war of national
liberation against French colonial rule between 1954 and 1962. Ruling
political party until the 1980s in Algeria.
FMLN - Farabundo Martí National Front
- Formed in 1970, the FMLN is a terrorist Marxist-Leninist organization
intent on establishing a communist revolutionary regime in El Salvador. The
FMLN was extremely active in its terrorist campaign, receiving assistance
from Nicaragua and Cuba.
FSLN - Frente Sandinista de Liberación
Nacional - This organization was founded in Havana in 1961 when Carlos
Fonseca-Amador's Nicaraguan Patriotic Youth organization merged with Tomas
Borge's Cuban-supported insurgent group. The group adopted Marxist-Leninist
ideology and gained support from the Castro government, employing low-level
guerrilla warfare and urban terrorism tactics to overthrow the Somoza
IRA - Irish Republican Army - The IRA
is the most dangerous terrorist organization of Northern Ireland dating back
to the early 1920s. Although, it wasn't until the 1970's when the IRA began
terrorist actions and resurrected the historical conflicts. The IRA targets
political transformation for United Ireland by eliminating Britain from
Northern Ireland and replacing the government of Northern Ireland with a
socialist government. Its Latin American headquarters are in Havana.
LASO - Latin American Solidarity
Organization - A Cuban controlled organization founded during the 1966
Tri-Continental Conference in Havana to "coordinate and foment the fight
against North American imperialism."
M-19 - Movimiento 19 de Abril - A
Castro supported group formed in 1974 to disrupt Colombia's government
through acts of terrorism and violence. The M-19 was very active throughout
the 1980s receiving assistance and training from the Montoneros and
Tupamaros groups and the Cuban government, causing Colombia to temporarily
sever diplomatic relations with Cuba.
M-6-14 - Agrupación Politica Catorce
de Junio - Dominican guerrilla organization trained in Cuba.
MACHETEROS - This terrorist
organization is composed of four Puerto Rican groups: 1) the Macheteros, 2)
the Ejercito Popular Borícua (EPB), 3) the Movimiento Popular
Revolucionario, and 4) the Partido Revolucionario de Trabajadores
Puertorriqueños. Most of the Macheteros have been trained in Cuba, were they
have established relations with other terrorist groups. They are responsible
for several terrorist acts within the United States and throughout Puerto
MIR - Movimiento de la Izquierda
Revolucionaria - A Chilean insurgent organization founded in 1965 and
supported by Castro. The MIR was very active in the mid-1970s when they
promoted violence and occupied several rural areas in Chile. The group
encountered several set backs during the 1980s that essentially ended their
MONTONEROS - An Argentinean guerilla
organization that was formed in 1968 as a Peronist urban anti-government
group. It adopted a Marxist ideology in the mid-1970s after it united with
the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Argentina. In 1977, many of its
members were exiled and its numbers reduced to less than 300.
MRTA - Tupac Amaru Revolutionary
Movement - Marxist-Leninist revolutionary organization formed in 1983 and
supported by the Castro regime. The MRTA's intent was to establish a Marxist
regime in Peru through terrorism, although Peru's counter terrorism program
diminished the groups' ability to effectively carry out terrorist attacks.
NLF - National Front for the
Liberation of South Yemen - Created in 1962 in the course of the revolution
in North Yemen against the monarchy and supported by Nasser, the NLF is
another important and successful branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement.
Since 1965 it has had very close relations with Cuba. In 1966-1967, it broke
with Nasser and finally forced the British to negotiate and evacuate Aden.
OSPAAL - Organization for the
Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America - Founded in
1966 in Cuba at the Tri-Continental Conference, this organization aims to
support the struggle of the people of Africa, Asia and Latin America against
imperialism, colonialism and neo-colonialism.
PLO - Palestine Liberation
Organization - This organization was founded in Cairo in 1964 under the
auspices of Egypt (then known as the United Arab Republic) to serve Nasser's
manipulations of the Palestinian cause. The group was composed mostly of
conservative Palestinian intellectuals and bureaucrats serving Arab
governments. The PLO was an instrument of Nasser's foreign policy until the
June War of 1967, when the old PLO leadership collapsed to be replaced by
FATEH's leadership headed by Arafat.
POLISARIO - People's Front for the
Liberation of Western Sahara and Río del Oro - The Frente POLISARIO was
inspired by the ANM tradition and the Algerian FLN and was created to fight
against the Spanish-Morrocan-Mauritinian arrangements to split the former
colony of Saguía el Hamra/Río del Oro (known as Western Sahara) between the
two African states. This group enjoyed active support from Algeria and Libya
POPULAR FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF
PALESTINES - The most important branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement
(ANM), created in the 1950s as radical followers of Nasser. After the June
War of 1967, the group disassociated itself from Nasser and focused on
building a more radical alternative within the Palestinians under the name
of Popular Front. The group has strong alliances within Lebanon, Jordan,
Yemen, and the Gulf, and was heavily engaged in terrorist activities during
TRICONTINENTAL - Cuban publication
disseminated by the Organization for the Solidarity of the Peoples of
Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) in four languages: Spanish, English,
French, and Italian / promoting the Castro line of armed struggle.
TUPAMAROS or MNL - Movimiento Nacional
de Liberación Tupamaros - This Uruguay insurgent group was organized in the
early 1960s by law student Raul Sendic. The Tupamaros were one of the first
terrorist groups to use guerrilla warfare in urban areas and established
independent terrorist cells throughout the country.
WORLD MATHABA - A Libyan project from
the late 1970s to promote political, financial, and military support for
revolutionary movements throughout the world. Ghaddafi called on other
"revolutionary governments" to support this project, which Cuba did. MATHABA
was essentially a tool in the hands of the Libyans to project their
individual goals and agenda. Financial and military assistance was never a
collective decision, but responded for the most part to bilateral
arrangements between Ghaddafi's regime and individual organizations, some of
which resorted, at different stages, to terrorist methods like the IRA and
ETA. Insurgencies in Central America, like the Sandinistas and others, were
privileged beneficiaries along with the African National Congress, Frente
POLISARIO, and others.
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Pérez Giménez, Alberto; "El Departamento América cubano." Diario ABC S.L.U.,
Profaca, Mario, "Project for Excellence in Journalism in Washington, D.C.,"
Reitan, Ruth, The Rise and Decline of an Alliance: Cuba and African
leaders in the 1960's. Ann Arbor: Michigan State University Press, 1999.
Ross, Enrique, Castro y las Guerrillas en Latinoamerica. Miami:
Distribuidora Universal, 2001.
Sale, Richard, "Analysis: U.S. Policy Morphing in Colombia." United Press
Sheheri, Tami, "N.J. Governor Blasts Chesimard Letter." APBnews.com;
http://www.freerepublic.com/forum/a391adbb70910.htm, December 1998.
Terrorism Research Center, The, "Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA).
Next Generation Terrorism Analysis."
http://www.terrorism.com/terrorism/MRTA.shtml, 1996 - 2000.
Times, The, "Arrested IRA man 'is Sinn Fein Cuba link'". British
News, August 2001.
Washington Post Foreign Service, "Havana
is Haven for Fugitive '70s Hijacker." August 1999.
The Institute for Cuban &
The Institute for Cuban &
Cuban-American Studies (ICCAS) is part of the School of International
Studies at the University of Miami. ICCAS serves as an academic center for
the research and study of Cuban, Cuban-American and U.S.-Cuban topics. It
helps determine and direct the research agenda in Cuban Studies at the
University of Miami and in the broader world of scholarship through academic
programs, publications, and the sponsoring of original research on specific
topics. ICCAS offers courses on Cuban history and culture and acquires or
encourages the acquisition of relevant books, documents, collections, and
other materials for the Cuban Heritage Collection at the University of Miami
Otto G. Richter Library. It also serves as an educational link between the
university, the exile community, and the South Florida community at-large.
For information please call (305) 284-CUBA (2822); Fax (305) 284-4875; Email
Institute for Cuban & Cuban-American Studies School of International Studies
P.O. Box 248174
Coral Gables, FL 33124-3010
About the Occasional Paper Series
The Institute publishes between 6-12
works per year as part of its Occasional Paper Series. A broad range of
topics is covered by the series, from the social sciences to the humanities
to more policy-oriented works on current events. An annual subscription is
$50. Back issues are available for $10 per copy.
- Irving Louis Horowitz, "Political Pilgrimage to
Cuba, 1959-1995." (August 1996).
- Joaquín Roy, "España, la Uni?n Europea y Cuba: la
evoluci?n de una relaci?n especial a una política de gestos y de presi?n."
- Antonio Jorge, "Methodology, Ideology, and the
Economy: The Dismal State of Cuban Studies." (October 1996).
- Enrique A. Baloyra, "Twelve Monkeys: Cuban National
Defense and the Military." (November 1996)
- José Manuel Hernández, "Félix Varela: El primer
cubano." (December 1996).
- Double Issue: "Facing the Future: Two views on
Cuba's Inevitable Transition." Includes Edward González, "Cuba's Dismal
Post-Castro Futures" and Alberto Coll, "The Future of U.S.-Cuba
Relations." (February 1996).
- Gert Oostindie, "A Loss of Purpose: Crisis and
Transition in Cuba." (March 1997).
- Marta Beatriz Roque Cabello and Arnaldo Lauzurique,
"Documentos del Instituto Cubano de Economistas Independientes." (April
- Jaime Suchlicki, "Cuba: A Current Assessment." (May
- Graciella Cruz-Taura, "De Patria Soñada a Nación
Funesta: Cuba en la Obra de José Antonio Saco." (June 1997).
- Emilio T. González, "The Cuban Connection: Drug
Trafficking and the Castro Regine." (July 1997).
- Gustavo Pérez-Firmat, "A Willingness of the Heart:
Cubanidad, Cubaneo, Cubanía."
- Jorge Duany, "From the Cuban ajiaco to the
Cuban-American Hyphen: Changing Discourses of National Identity on the
island and in the Diaspora." (October 1997).
- Ricardo Pau-Llosa, "The Tasks of Exile." (November
- Ileana Fuentes, "De Patria a Matria." (December
- Holly Ackerman, "Five Meanings of Cuba's Political
Prisoners." (February 1998).
- Juan del Aguila, "Exiles or Immigrants? The
Politics of National Identity." (March 1998).
- José Manuel Hernández, "The Politics of Wishful
Thinking: Nineteenth Century Precedents of the Bay of Pigs." (April 1998).
- George Lambie, "Cuban-European Relations:
Historical Perspectives and Political Consequences." (May 1998).
- Charlotte Cosner,"Vegueros and Tabaqueros:
Rebellion, Revolution, and 'The Devil's Plant': Challenges to State
Control in Colonial Cuba." (June 1998).
- Maria Werlau, "Impressions on the Visit of Pope
John Paul II to Cuba." (September 1998).
- Juan Clark, "The Pope's Visit to Cuba and its
Aftermath." (June 1999).
- Domingo Amuchastegui, "Cuba in the Middle East: A
Brief Chronology." (July 1999).
- Antonio Jorge, "The U.S. Embargo and the Failure of
the Cuban Economy." (February 2000).
- Efren Cordova and Eduardo Garcia Moure, "Modern
Slavery: Labor Conditions in Cuba." (April 2000).
- Efren Cordova and Eduardo Garcia Moure, "La
situacion de los trabajadores en Cuba." (April 2000).
- Jaime Suchlicki, "The U.S. Embargo of Cuba." (June
- Sara M. Sanchez, "Afro-Cuban Diasporan Religions: A
Comparative Analysis of the Literature and Selected Annotated
Bibliography." (August 2000).
- Irving Louis Horowitz, "Searching for the Soul of
American Foreign Policy: The Cuban Embargo and the National Interest."
- Dr. Moises Asís, "Judaism in Cuba: 1959-1999."
- Enrico Mario Santi, "Fresa y Chocolate: The
Rhetoric of Cuban Reconciliation." (May 2001).